Thursday, August 27, 2020

Institutional Accountability Dispersion of Power and Delegation of Responsibilities

Presentation Governance and responsibility is a basic idea to the advancement of states. Responsibility in administration is an essential practice. It supports adequacy in release of obligations and evenhanded distribution of assets. Responsibility in various establishments has a nearby connection with the manner in which force is circulated in associations. The loci of intensity in establishments are helpful boundaries for evaluating the degree of responsibility in the organizations.Advertising We will compose a custom article test on Institutional Accountability: Dispersion of Power and Delegation of Responsibilities explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More Decentralization of intensity is profoundly empowered in most liberal vote based systems over the world. Decentralization of intensity is showed in various administrative practices in establishments like the assignment of the organization’s obligations and duties (Brinkerhoff et al. 2009). This paper investi gates the parts of centralization and decentralization of intensity in various organizations and how these two parts of administration energize responsibility. In this paper, it is contended that institutions’ responsibility is better achieved through scattering of intensity and the assignment of the organization’s duties instead of through centralization of intensity and control. Responsible administration in liberal popular governments Having referenced liberal vote based systems, it is basic to clarify how the conveyance of intensity supports responsibility in such countries. One indispensable quality of liberal majority rules systems in the today’s world is the high decentralization of intensity. Force and capacity to settle on choices in such nations don't lie in the possession of certain people. Liberal states’ choices are made through counsels between various arms of the legislature. This implies various arms of the legislature examine, talk with o ne another and intentional on the issues before an official choice is reached (Ezzamel et al. 2007). Choices came to through discussion and thoughts are preferable weighed over those that are made singularly. Various bodies which intentional on the issues and think of specific proposals are additionally engaged with the usage of such choices (Brinkerhoff et al. 2009). Along these lines, there is a low chance of controlling choices in the center periods of execution. This supports checks, guaranteeing that there is a parity in the execution procedure. It is anything but difficult to identify inconsistencies in the usage of the choices as a result of the numerous eyewitnesses checking the process.Advertising Looking for paper on government? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Up to this point, say that liberal popular governments empower institutions’ responsibility. Forces are decentralized from the top administration, le aving establishments with no other alternative, yet to execute such structures (Mulgan,2003). Having discussed liberal majority rules systems, it is essential to specify totalitarian administration. Dictatorial administration is the least wanted structure government in the advanced society. Totalitarianism implies the centralization of intensity. A couple of people are vested with dynamic force, leaving others as insignificant implementers of the choices came to. Channels of thinking on issues are shut settling on the vast majority elastic stamp these choices. The nature of choices is placed in danger. Hence, the degree of responsibility is frequently low in systems which don't grasp vote based system (Trechsel,2010). Administration and responsibility in decentralized foundations Research shows that a great many people on the planet are against the concentrated arrangement of administration. There are a few explanations behind the hatred. Probably the most grounded reason is that br ought together administration murders institutional responsibility through the support of one-sided dynamic (Ezzamel et al. 2007). In brought together administration, there is one locus of intensity. Institutional capacities are facilitated from a solitary point. In certain occasions, all the forces to settle on key choices are left heavily influenced by one person. The aftereffect of this is one individual exploits the ability to settle on specific choices, which probably won't be positive for the entire nation/establishment (Kaler,2002). A profound investigate the cutting edge practices of institutional administration shows that most associations grasp decentralized structure of the executives. Appointment of power and obligation can be followed in a more extensive scope of organizations. This is one type of decentralizing force and empowering sharing of hierarchical force and duties. This training is imitated at practically all degrees of administration in nations that grasp vote based system. Prominent models can be followed in the United States, Western Europe, and Australia (Curtin, Mair Papadopoulos, 2010).Advertising We will compose a custom article test on Institutional Accountability: Dispersion of Power and Delegation of Responsibilities explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More These are the benchmark districts in most definitely. The inquiry that ought to be posed is the way the decentralization of intensity and appointment of obligations adds to a higher responsibility. Another issue that ought to be talked about now is the manner by which the centralization of intensity and obligations executes institutional responsibility. These inquiries can be adequately replied by investigating institution’s organization from two viewpoints †unified and decentralized administration (Schillemanns, 2008). Decentralized institutional administration: its job in realizing responsibility Steets (2010) saw that institutional responsibility was frequently estimated by the level at which establishments planed and appointed assets adequately so as to get the ideal outcomes. Responsibility implies that representatives in an establishment grasp morals in their work (Shearer, 2002). The use of decentralized standards in associations involves the redistribution of expert in institutions’ the board. In such organizations, power is shared among various individuals. In this manner, choices are not made by a solitary position. Every office is offered forces to think of their own recommendations that might be proficient. Each segment of an association has a head who drives it in thinking of choices and actualizing them utilizing the accessible assets. Maybe, one point ought to be noted here. Decentralized authority doesn't imply that there is no focal point of intensity. Various focuses of intensity exist inside an association. Be that as it may, each focal point of intensity is given independence in various obligations. T his is the place the part of obligation begins. Pioneers of divisions work intimately with the organization’s individuals. Institutional specialists keep close minds one another and on the general obligations that are appointed to them (Kaler,2002). Hierarchical errands are not left in the possession of a couple of people yet conveyed among different fragments of the association. Leaving the assignment of dynamic to less individuals has various results on institutions’ organization. One of the impacts is that centralization of power and duty causes flooding. Flooding empowers haphazardness in the release of institutional duties.Advertising Searching for exposition on government? We should check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Find out More In such circumstances, it is simple for an organization to achieve improved execution. In appointment, institutional duties are relegated to individuals over the establishment so that no individual is left with a wide heap of work. This activity relies upon the capacities and aptitudes of the institution’s laborers. Consequently, it is anything but difficult to limit on an individual at whatever point irregularities happen in the organization. Notwithstanding, abnormalities once in a while happen on the grounds that each individual is associated with the institution’s creation. Establishments are found as far as their capacity to serve the general public and not regarding force and predominance (Hood,2010). Force is a minor component in circumstances where there is a higher designation of obligations and duties. As such, power is supplanted by duty. Individuals make a solid effort to achieve their undertakings as they are answerable for any errand alloted to them. Most associations in liberal majority rules systems flourish in the worldwide economy because of elevated levels of execution. The most significant level of execution originates from the way that there is an elevated level of hierarchical obligation because of assignment of obligations and duties (Steets, 2010). As indicated by Behn (2001), various individuals contend that responsibility can in any case be achieved in foundations that have incorporated activities. Their contention is that centralization advances organization, which thus energizes responsibility in establishments. While there is some weight in the contention, the greatest part of the contention is disproved. This originates from the various examination results. Those outcomes show that organization doesn't empower responsibility. Most capacities in bureaucratic organizations are incorporated. Assignment of duty is an uncommon practice in such organizations. End Institutional responsibility is firmly connected with decentr alized frameworks of administration. This arrangement of administration is interchangeable with liberal vote based systems. Liberal majority rules systems empower the decentralization of intensity and designation of authoritative obligation. Most organizations in liberal majority rule governments grasp the just standards of the executives. These standards incorporate designation of institutional force and obligations. This framework administration is equal with despotic systems. In such systems, institutionsâ�

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Dissertations Writing Challenges For Students

Dissertations Writing Challenges For StudentsDissertations are the most difficult type of assignment to write. There are many aspects of the dissertations writing that can confuse the students, which makes it difficult for them to compose essays with common sense.There are many different kinds of dissertations. It can be research dissertations, theses dissertations, dissertation dissertations and theses dissertations. Some of these dissertations involve important research work which has been done in the past few years.Dissertations are the documents that will be given to the employers for the purpose of approval for the applicant to be hired. The dissertations are used as a platform for students to make their entries in the field of academia and industry. This will be used to help others understand more about what they have studied in their previous years.Dissertations writing is considered to be a tricky task for the students because it involves writing more than an ordinary essay. It involves interpreting other people's words, writing a coherent thesis statement and clearly expressing your thoughts. Dissertations writing can also be frustrating for the students, because the process can be really time consuming. In this article, we will discuss the two most common dissertations writing challenges that students have to face.One challenge is the fact that they have to use simple words and forget the hard things and avoid using more than three collocations at a time. They need to be able to write in a format that can be read easily by a computer. Students should also understand that writing a thesis is a huge project and needs much dedication and hard work.Dissertations writing is the most challenging task for the students because they have to confront the difficult issues regarding use of proper vocabulary and lack of formal research. Writing in the form of thesis statements, factual statements and main arguments are considering to be a full scale project.Disser tations writing is also more difficult to write because it requires that the students have great knowledge about various subjects and also they have to be able to accurately express themselves and retain the ideas and opinions that they hold in their minds. Due to the reason that they are writing dissertations, students should be aware that their writing is published and there will be readers who will be looking for a summary of their dissertations.Dissertations writing is not an easy task for the students. In order to be successful, the students should know how to write different types of dissertations and all the types of dissertations.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Emptiness in The Hollow Men Essay -- Hollow Men Essays

Void in The Hollow Menâ â  â After Eliot had distributed The Waste Land, he felt just as he had not had the option to completely pass on the feeling of distress and void in that work. Starting with Doris’s Dream Songs and Eyes I Last Saw in Tears, he investigated these topics, in the end joining every such sonnet in The Hollow Men. The final result is a work that, in contrast to The Waste Land and its definitive possibility for recovery, has just the permanent vacancy of the empty men as its decision. The empty men are the individuals who, throughout everyday life, didn't follow up on their convictions; they opposed any activity whatsoever, and subsequently deteriorate interminably in the Shadow, a land in the middle of paradise and heck, totally disengaged from both. Eliot’s references give a recognizable abstract and mainstream premise to the setting, while the images and melodious movement pass on the worthlessness and profound brokenness of the men. The poem’s beginning epigraph, Mistah Kurtz- - He dead is the first of numerous implications to Conrad’s epic, Heart of Darkness. Eliot utilizes the references to cause the reader’s to notice the ethical circumstance of Kurtz and the others who have crossed/With direct eyes, to death’s other Kingdom. These men and Kurtz characterized themselves through their activities, regardless of whether they were acceptable. In Baudelaire’s words, So far as we are human, what we do must be either insidious or great; so far as we do underhanded or great, we are human; and it is better, in an incomprehensible way, to do malicious than to sit idle: at any rate, we exist (Drew 94). A precise depiction of the state of the empty men, this statement has likewise been utilized in analysis of Heart of Darkness. Hence the (otherworldly) stagnation of the tumid stream and the individuals who hold up alongside it is appeared differently in relation to the dynamici... ...ubmission to a world that closes not with a blast however a whine.  Works Cited Brady, Ann Patrick. Lyricism in the Poetry of T.S. Eliot. London: Kennikat Press, 1978. Drew, Elizabeth. T.S. Eliot: The Design of His Poetry. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949. Headings, Philip R.. T.S. Eliot, Revised Edition. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1982. Irritable, A. David. The Cambridge Companion to T.S. Eliot. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1994. Irritable, A. David. T.S. Eliot, Poet. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1994. Raine, Craig. The Awful Daring of T.S. Eliot. The Guardian. 21. August 19, 1988. Roessel, David. Fellow Fawkes Day and the Versailles Peace in ‘The Hollow Men’. English Language Notes, Sept. 1990. 52-58. Vol. 28. Williamson, George. A Reader’s Guide to T.S. Eliot. New York: Octagon Books, 1974.  Â

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

The Amendment And The Congressional Apportionment Amendment

There have been many amendments that have made their way through the congress since first the constitution was instated. A few, however, never made it into the United States constitution. There were six amendments that were never ratified into the constitution. Some were justified in their reasons for not being ratified, but then there are some which to this day no one quite understands why they were not ratified into the constitution. In Americans attempt to be a fair and just country, its government made many different decisions that were later written into a simple document that would have such an impact on a nation and even the world. The six amendments that did not make the cut were either later rewritten or forgotten completely but here in this paper all six will be looked at and analyzed. The six amendments are Congressional Apportionment Amendment, Title of Nobility Amendment, Corwin Amendment, Child Labor Amendment, Equal Rights Amendment, and District of Columbia Voting Rig hts Amendment. The first amendment discussed is the Congressional Apportionment Amendment. This amendment would strictly regulate the size of congressional districts for representation in the House of Representatives. This amendment was actually the first in the original proposal for the Bill of Rights. Among other provisions, the amendment stated that after the House grew beyond 200 members, there would be no more than one representative for every 50,000 citizens. Eleven states ratified theShow MoreRelatedThe Size Of The House Of Representatives891 Words   |  4 PagesIn 1787, one of the most debated issues was the size of the House of Representatives. During the Constitutional Convention, the delegates proposed that 40,000 citizens should be represented by one congressional district. However, George Washington intervened and argued that 40,000 was too high, and reasoned that 30,000 was more reasonable and allow people to be represented adequately Washington’s proposal was incorporate d in Article One, Section Two of the Constitution which states â€Å"representativesRead MoreMiller Vs. Johnson Case707 Words   |  3 Pagesis the manipulation of district boundaries in a way that creates a political advantage in elections by putting a large group of people who are likely to vote for a certain party in one district. In the case of Miller v. Johnson 1995, only one congressional district in Georgia was primarily African-American between 1980 and 1990. However, in 1990, Georgia’s black population was at 27%, and many African-Americans felt that they were being underrepresented. Georgia’s General Assembly was prompted toRead MoreSchool1611 Words   |  7 PagesPart 1: Chart House vs Senate | | | | | | HOUSE | SENATE | 1 | Size | 453 | 100 | 2 | Length of term | 2 years | 6 yrs | 3 | Term limits? | No limit | No limit | 4 | Election schedule: how often | | | 5 | Apportionment of representatives: which is by state and which is by district | District | State | 6 | Minimum age | 25 | 30 | 7 | Minimum citizenship | 7 years | 9 years | 8 | Inhabitant of state represented (for how long) | 7 years | 9 years | 9 |Read MoreA Map Of The United States852 Words   |  4 Pages When looking at a map of the United States, it can be seen that it is very cut and dry. The borders of states are straight, cut at right angles, and distributes the land proportionally. The same cannot be seen or said for Congressional districts. The intention is to evenly divide up the States even further but instead, it is based on the state populations. It can also be apparent that the drawing of the districts in recent years has been less than about population numbers, but as to who the populationRead MoreEssay on The Electoral College1528 Words   |  7 Pageschoose electors or the apportionment of electors. Finally they had chosen a system of electing a president. Winston Churchill later said, the electoral college system is probably the worst possible method of choosing a president-except for all the others (Glennon 3). States went three main routes in choosing electors: the legislative system, where state legislatures choose the electors; a district system, where electors are selected by the people of each congressional district; and the generalRead MoreAmendments Essay 82136 Words   |  9 PagesAmendments Main article: List of amendments to the United States Constitution The Constitution has a total of 27 amendments. The first ten, collectively known as the Bill of Rights, were ratified simultaneously. The following seventeen were ratified separately. [edit] The Bill of Rights (1Ââ€"10) United States Bill of Rights currently housed in the National Archives Main article: United States Bill of Rights The Bill of Rights comprises the first ten amendments to the Constitution. Those amendmentsRead MoreA Brief Look Into American Tax Structure1282 Words   |  6 Pages A Brief Look Into American Tax Structure GAAP vs. IRS Tax Accounting CJ Moore Highline CC January 19, 2014 Prior to the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment of the American Constitution, the majority of the income received by the federal government was through tariffs and excise taxation (Pollack, 2013). Tariffs are taxes â€Å"levied by governments on the value including freight and insurance of imported products (Tariffs and Import Fees, 2014)†. Excise taxes are â€Å"taxes paid when purchasesRead MoreA Government Agency With Fice Of Quality, Performance, And Oversight1471 Words   |  6 Pagespayers’ money and have legislative policies to comply with. The different phases of the VA’s budget cycle are described by the Department of the Treasury as â€Å"life cycles† and include the following; Executive budget formulation and transmittal, congressional action, budget execution and control, audit and review. ( The VA has endured harsh public and political criticism for their health care backlogs and erroneous disability claims in the past years. Therefore, Legislation has proposedRead MoreThe Voting Rights Act 421809 Words   |  8 PagesAlaskan languages, and Asian languages. Some of the changes to the new amendment within the Voting Rights Act prohibited literacy tests as a requirement for voter registration. It also required jurisdictions with large minority language speaking populations to have non-English speaking ballots as well as oral voting instructions that conformed to the language minorities within their districts. Additionally, the new amendments to the Voting Rights Act also protected minorities from voter dilutionRead MoreThe Electoral College System Is Outdated And Unfair1670 Words   |  7 Pageschose the president (Edwards 12). What is the elector college? There are two stages in the Electoral College collection. The first stage is the collection of the popular votes in all fifty states except for Nebraska and Maine, those states use congressional districts to choose their electors (Schumaker 12). The presidential candidates that get the popular mass in each state win the electoral votes that the constitutional provisions grant (Schumaker 12). The last stage inheres of the national count

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Social Issue Regarding Teen Pregnancy - 756 Words

Purpose: The social issue regarding teen pregnancy is still very prevalent in the United States. Teen pregnancy is a huge issue because it is known to have a negative effect on the mother and most importantly the child. An initial study was conducted on two teenage mothers prior to having their child. The researcher wanted to further investigate the same population for a better understanding of teenage motherhood. The purpose of case study was to examine the perceptions of two adolescent mothers. The investigator wanted to survey the participants in hopes of understanding their views of adolescent pregnancy before giving birth and after giving birth. Method: The participants were from a small urban community. There were eight females who participated in the initial study. All eight were contacted for further investigation however, two agreed to participate. The participants were interviewed in the privacy of their own home with their child present. The researcher used an audiotape to record the responses to the open ended questions. The interview was very conversational as the investigator allowed the participants to elaborate and speak freely about their experiences. The interview carefully interpreted both of the participant’s responses to ensure accurate information. After an hour and half of collecting data from the participants, they both were given an opportunity to withdraw their thoughts and opinions however they both declined. That data was collected andShow MoreRelatedTeen Pregnancy Is A Serious Issue982 Words   |  4 PagesThe social issue I will be addressing throughout my paper is teen pregnancy. The term teen preg nancy is referring to teens between the ages of 13-19 who become pregnant (Akella Jordan, 2015). Despite the fact that teen pregnancy rates have dropped within the past twenty years, United States continues to have the highest rates of teen pregnancy in comparison to all other developed nations ( Akella Jordan, 2015). Teen pregnancy is a serious issue for a multiplicity of reasons. A teenager who hasRead MoreResearch on Teen Pregnancy in Los Angeles County1223 Words   |  5 PagesTeen Pregnancy in Los Angeles There is presently much controversy regarding teen pregnancy, considering that many countries in the developed world experience a rise in adolescent pregnancies in spite of the fact that effective programs are installed in these areas. Teen pregnancy has been a major issue in Los Angeles in the recent years, but the fact that state authorities have been actively involved in combating the problem has generated positive results. It is probable that the struggle for abstinenceRead MoreTeen Pregnancy1426 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Teen pregnancy is often unplanned and challenging for the future life of mother and child. The increase risk of health problems for both mother and baby occur during teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy impacts adolescent development in all aspects: physical, emotional, cognitive, and social development. Negative consequences result from teen pregnancy include: low income, increased school dropout rates, lower educational levels, and increased rates of substance abuse (Garwood, Gerassi, ReidRead MoreTeenage Pregnancy Is A Public Health Issue1637 Words   |  7 Pagesto 2013 from 29.4 to 26.5. In fact, the birth rate has been on a steady decline over the past 20 years, from 61.8 in 1991 to 26.5 in 2013. Teenage pregnancy represents both a health and social inequality in our society. Specifically, teenage childbearing is a public health issue because teenage mothers are more likely to experience negative social outcomes such as dropping out of school. This is a self-reinforcing cycle, as children of teenage mothers face higher chances of poor academic achievementRead MoreTeen Pregnancy : A Social Issue1371 Words   |  6 PagesTeen pregnancy is a very controversial social issue and the vast majority of Americans consider the outrageous rate of teen pregnancies a severe issue, certainly a problematic occurrence that is believed to be a moral decline in our country. Teenagers are physiologically capable of reproducing but not emotionally or financially prepared to be parents at such a tender age. Through various research studies a plethora of determinants has pin pointed teens unprecedented pregnancies. One cause of thisRead MoreThe Controversy Regarding Teenage Pregnancy: The Essential Role of Education and Good Parenting1270 Words   |  5 Pagesis presently much controversy regarding teenage pregnancy and the probability of its chances being reduced by education and good parenting. The surrounding environment plays an essential role when considering teenage p regnancy and it is thus very important for teenagers to be provided with proper education and a positive environment in order for them to be able to understand the difference between right and wrong. One of the most important things about teen pregnancy is that society as a whole needsRead MoreEffects Of Social Media On Teen Pregnancy Essay1400 Words   |  6 PagesEffects of Social Media on Teen Pregnancy Does social media impact teenagers in a positive or negative manner? With the advent of social media, it is unclear what to expect from it and the influence it brings to the society. According to various research studies in the field of online social networks, it has been revealed that these sites are impacting the lives of the youth greatly. When using sites such as Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and many others, there are both positive and negative effectsRead MoreTeenage Pregnancy And Teen Pregnancy Essay1611 Words   |  7 Pages Teen Pregnancy Meshia Williams Just because teenage pregnancy has decreased does not mean the problem is solved. Nearly all teenage pregnancies are unplanned. Teen mothers are nearly twice as likely to forgo prenatal care in the first trimester. This sets up complications along with health problems, costs, responsible fatherhood, education, and risky behavior. Babies are having babies before they’re even fully developed themselves; the environment, and media along with other things are all factorsRead MoreTeenage Moms That Are Still In High School Get Pregnant1391 Words   |  6 Pagesare still in high school get pregnant at a young age, and are not able to support themselves or their child. There were just under a quarter million pregnancies in women ages fifteen to nineteen in 2014. About eighty-five percent of these pregnancies are unplanned, which in any population can increase the risk for problems. The biggest risk for teen mothers is delaying prenatal care or worse, about seven percent received no c are at all. According to CDC, In 2014, almost 250,000 babies were bornRead MoreAdolescent Parenthood : An Issue Of Public Concern For Many Years1267 Words   |  6 Pagesparenthood has been an issue of public concern for many years. Adolescent parenthood has been the subject of numerous articles, public health reports, and public debate. So what makes adolescent parenthood such a popular topic of discussion and a reoccurring social problem? How does an adolescent parent relate to such public issues as education, poverty, and family? Researchers conduct literature reviews and original research in an effort to find a resolution to decrease adolescent pregnancy/parenthood and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Genetic Engineering Is Not Safe - 990 Words

Genetic engineering is the intended modification to an organism’s genetic makeup. There have been no continuing studies on this topic or action so there is no telling whether or not it is harmless. Genetic engineering is not safe because scientists have no absolute knowledge about living systems. Given that, they are unable to do DNA surgery without creating mutations. Any interference on an organism’s genetic makeup can cause permanent damage, hereditary defects, lack of nutritious food, or a spread of dangerous diseases. Even through the downsides of genetic engineering scientists have had a few breakthroughs. It can help us in our farming needs and also drugs for animals, and pesticides. For agriculture, engineering is used for†¦show more content†¦Now that there are new technologies, scientists are capable of helping doctors by creating life-saving technology. If a person is bleeding excessively and lacks the correct gene, doctors would insert a gene into their DNA so that a healing process in that person is now possible. Cloning is the production of something that is genetically identical to each other. The word cloning is the time when people get hesitant about the process of genetic engineering. When the word â€Å"clone† is used people automatically assume that an exact twin or ‘clone’ is developed, this isn’t the case. Through cloning scientists may be able to reverse the aging process, or come up with medical processes that can save hundreds of people’s lives. Say someone was involved in a serious accident. They are rushed to the hospital and after all that is done they are still given a 85% chance to survive. They are currently lacking an organ to sustain a stable body. Embryonic stem cells can be grown to produce organs or tissues to repair or replace damaged ones, this is credited to biotechnology. There are other possibilities that come with cloning and biotechnology, but with reward there is risk. With cloning, infertile couples could have children, but the child may have a mutation if not done with the utmost precision. Also because of human cloning and its technology the days of silicone breast implants and other cosmetic procedures that mayShow MoreRelatedGenetic Modification : Genetically Modified Organism1067 Words   |  5 Pages Genetic modification will improve life everywhere by helping to feed the hungry and curing the sick. GMO stands for genetically modified organism. According to the New Oxford American Dictionary, this means an organism containing genetic material that has been artificially altered so as to produce a desired characteristic. Generally, genetic modification happens one of two ways. First, picks the organism with desired traits and breeds it to another with the same traits, making the desired traitsRead MoreGenetic Engineering: Brave New World1012 Words   |  5 PagesGenetic engineering has been around for many years and is widely used all over the planet. Many people don’t realize that genetic engineering is part of their daily lives and diet. Today, almost 70 percent of processed foods from a grocery store were genetically engineered. Genetic engineering can be in plants, foods, animals, and even humans. Although debates about genetic engineering still exist, many people have accepted due to the health benefits of gene therapy. The lack of knowledge has alwaysRead MoreGenetic Engineering And The Human Existence1193 Words   |  5 Pages Why is genetic engineering crucial to the human existence? Initially, genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the process of manually adding new unique DNA into an organism. The objective is to add one or numerous new traits that are not already constructed in that particular organism. New DNA inserts in the host genome and immediately isolates and replicates the gene of interest by using molecular cloning methods to synthesize a DNA sequence; then inserting this construct intoRead MoreGenetically Modified Organisms And The Health Of The Population1177 Words   |  5 PagesGenetic engineering (GE) is the process of modifying organisms, usually to perfect them in some way. This process involves the changing of gene sequences in an organism by inserting different genes from two or more species into the chromosome of the organism being modified (Genetically Modified Food). GE is used in a wide variety of organisms including plants, animals, and, crops. The purpose of using these techniques in crops is to improve the quality of them. GE can yield multiple benefitsRead MoreShort Essay On How To Feed The Planet1596 Words   |  7 Pagesthrough the process of genetic engineering. This process allows scientists to directly change the genome of a plant to eliminate undesired traits and elevate desired traits. Humans haven’t always been able to directly alter the genome, but since the beginning of agriculture theyve bred crops with desired traits through selective breeding and crossbreeding. These processes allowed early farmers to create stronger crops and although it wasn’t as effective as modern genetic engineering, it paved the roadRead MoreBenefits Of Genetically Modified Foods1647 Words   |  7 PagesMost people consume genetically modified, or GM, foods every day without even being aware. While some do avidly monitor their food consumption and avoid GM foods, others simply eat GM foods because, to them, GM foods seem safe to consume. In â€Å"Genetically Modified Foods Are Not Safe to Eat,† osteopath, Joseph Mercola, advocates his concerns of consuming GM foods and stresses that more people need to be aware of what they eat. Even though some may still disagree that genetically modified foods are unsafeRead MoreHuman Genetic Engineering : Ethical Or Not?1117 Words   |  5 PagesKendal Gower Professor Fountain English 101 17 September 2014 Human Genetic Engineering: Ethical or Not? If man could prevent his child from having Tay Sachs Disease, Cystic Fibrosis, Down Syndrome and other life threatening genetic disorders, should he be able to? Using human genetic engineering, scientists have developed the skills and techniques to do just this. Human genetic engineering, however, is fairly new in the science world and many questions and unresolved problems still remain. ThisRead MoreGenetic Engineering Is The Making Of New Genetic Material Of An Organism From Pre Made Material1119 Words   |  5 PagesPeter Miller Mrs. Knetter IB Biology February 23rd 2016 Genetic engineering is the making of new genetic material of an organism from pre-made material. Generically, it uses ancient practises of selecting a certain organism to breed and hybridize. Genetic engineering is done by involving the manipulating the DNA. Restriction enzymes are used produced by different species of bacteria. Vectors are important in the DNA manipulation which carry fragments of DNA from organism to organism calledRead MoreGenetic Engineering : A World Where Autism And Downs Syndrome1270 Words   |  6 PagesGenetic Engineering Imagine a world where autism and downs syndrome are a thing of the past, and where there is no shortage on food for anybody. Over the years mankind has developed and improved technology to save more and more lives through the manipulation of the DNA that makes up all living organisms. However, there are those who oppose this approach. Despite the risks and ethical concerns, genetic engineering holds the potential to benefit humanity through both direct and indirect means. InRead MoreBenefits Of Genetic Engineering711 Words   |  3 PagesShould genetic engineering be allowed? â€Å"With genetic engineering, we will be able to increase the complexity of DNA, and improve the human race.† - Stephen Hawking. Genetic engineering is the genetic modification of an organism’s phenotype, also known as an organism’s genetic makeup. Genetic engineering can have its advantages and disadvantages, but I believe there are more advantages than disadvantages. There are a number of benefits that we can only discover if scientists consider to study and

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Project Execution and Control Financial Risk

Question: Discuss about theProject Execution and Controlfor Financial Risk. Answer: Risk Management Plan Risk Identification and Assessment The possible risks for this case study are as follows. Financial Risk Due to the large size of the stadium, the cost of construction will be significantly high. Hence, there is a very high chance for financial risk. The main reason behind this risk will be inaccurate cost estimation during the project planning phase (Phillips, 2013). For instance, let the estimated cost for the stadium construction is $15 million. On the other hand, the actual cost of construction comes out to be $25 million. In this case, the company will lose a huge amount of funds. This will significantly reduce the cost benefit that has been estimated during the project planning. Hence, accurate cost estimation is necessary to avoid financial risks. Poor Quality of Materials The stadium is a huge structure that will hold more than 40,000 spectators during a game. Hence, it is important that the stadium be built with the best quality of materials in order to avoid accidents during a game. Even small accidents can cause fatalities in the crowd. Poor quality materials will result in high chances of accidents when the stadium is fully packed with spectators. Accidents Another major risk during the construction phase is unforeseen accidents. This mainly occurs due to mishandling of large instruments like cranes, lifters and others (Turner, 2014). Due to these accidents, some on-site workers may lose their lives. Hence, it is necessary to be careful during the execution of the construction phase. Other Risks There are chances of other risks as well that include political, social, cultural and others. These risks can be mitigated if proper precautions are taken before the execution of the project. The following table shows the risk register including risk probabilities and impacts. Type of Risk When Risk Can Occur Response to Risk Consequence of Risk (e.g., High/Low) Likelihood of Occurrence Priority Financial During and after the project Extra funds, new sponsorship deals Extreme High High Poor Quality Materials After the project Selection of reliable vendors for the supply of materials Extreme Medium High Accidents During construction Installation of first aid and safety structures, controlled operations of large instruments High Low Medium Other Risks (Political, Social, Environmental, etc.) Throughout the course of the project Compliance with government and construction rules and guidelines Medium Low Medium Risk Management and Reporting In order to mitigate the risks identified for this project, the company needs to develop risk mitigation strategies for the project. The suggested mitigation strategies are provided as follows. Financial Risks For avoiding financial risk, it is important to avoid errors in cost estimation during the project planning phase. Hence, the company should take up a suitable strategy for cost estimation. For this purpose, the company should execute more market analysis studies to learn the changes in prices of the materials that are needed for the construction (Klakegg, 2016). Moreover, the contractors should be chosen with some fixed contracts so there are no deviations from the costs spent to pay the contractors. Finally, the company should use softwares for more accurate cost estimations and cost benefits. Another recommendation is that during project planning and cost estimation, the company should also consider some buffer budget that can be used during emergencies. Poor Quality Materials The company can call tenders for selection of a suitable vendor of the materials needed for the construction of the stadium. The terms of the contract should be such that the vendor provides the best qualities of materials or legal actions will be taken against them. Accidents The company must take suitable steps to minimize chances of accidents during the construction. Safety equipments and first aid systems must be used to ensure safety of the on-site workers (Liu, Meng Fellows, 2015). Moreover, extra precautions should be taken in order to prevent mishandling of large equipments that result in serious and fatal accidents. Other Risks The company should ensure the project is executed by following legal, government and environmental policies and guidelines. Necessary legal paperwork must be done and signed before the project is executed so that there are no further complications in the future. Stakeholder Roles Stakeholders play the most important roles in mitigating the risks encountered during the project. During the risk management activities, the project manager must take an active part and ensure the project is executed by following all the construction rules and guidelines. Moreover, he should also ensure proper safety measures are taken during execution of the construction (Cagliano, Grimaldi Rafele, 2015). The financial manager should ensure the cost estimation process is accurate and the project costs should not exceed the project budget by a long margin. The construction manager should ensure the qualities of materials are not poor and the operations are executed carefully and within safe environment. References Cagliano, A. C., Grimaldi, S., Rafele, C. (2015). Choosing project risk management techniques. A theoretical framework.Journal of Risk Research,18(2), 232-248. Klakegg, O. J. (2016). Project Risk Management: Challenge Established Practice. Liu, J., Meng, F., Fellows, R. (2015). An exploratory study of understanding project risk management from the perspective of national culture.International Journal of Project Management,33(3), 564-575. McNeil, A. J., Frey, R., Embrechts, P. (2015).Quantitative risk management: Concepts, techniques and tools. Princeton university press. Paul, V. K., Basu, C. (2016). Scenario Planning and Risk Failure Mode Effect and Analysis (RFMEA) based Management.Journal of Construction Engineering and Project Management,6(2), 24-29. Peixoto, J., Tereso, A., Fernandes, G., Almeida, R. (2014). Project Risk Management Methodology: A Case Study of an Electric Energy Organization.Procedia technology,16, 1096-1105. Phillips, J. (2013).PMP, Project Management Professional (Certification Study Guides). McGraw-Hill Osborne Media. Turner, J. R. (2014).The handbook of project-based management(Vol. 92). New York, NY: McGraw-hill.